Selected extract of Punica granatum CAE® has shown to be highly active to inhibit attachment and entry of HCMV and HPV into host cells, thereby eliminating the majority of pathogens even before infection and protecting the cell from any further harmful processes.
First phase elimination of viral particles through autophagy processes
Normally, foreign particles are detected by the host-cell defense system and eliminated through the cells cleaning processes, also called autophagy. It has been shown that herpesviridae as well as papillomaviridae have the ability to inhibit this important process of autophagy and thereby ensure that the genetic information can be transported to its target location, transcribed and translated.
Extract of honey MAEE™ has been shown to enhance markers for autophagy processes and has therefore the potential to help the cells defense mechanisms to re-establish the natural autophagy processes which will help to eliminate viral particles before and after the nucleic phase.
Protection of the host cell’s nucleic balance
The transcription and translation of the viral genetic information depends strongly on the type of its genome, described by the classification of Baltimore. In general terms speaking, viruses can contain RNA or DNA in single or double strand. Both, herpesviridae and papillomaviridae contain double stranded DNA and belong to Class I of the Baltimore classification. As such their genetic information has to enter the host cell’s nucleus in order to be transcribed into RNA which is then used to produce viral proteins. To ensure optimal replication of their genetic information, viruses fundamentally alter processes in the host cell’s nuclei, one of which is an increase in nucleic DNAPK, a complex responsible for the non-homologue DNA repair.
Extract of Ocimum basilicum OBE™ has shown to inhibit DNAPK and thereby maintain the base level of these complexes in the cells core, thereby normalizing non-homologues repair processes of DNA and reducing the virus’ ability to transcribe its DNA.
Second phase of elimination of viral particles through autophagy
After successful transcription and translation of the viral genetic information in the host cell’s core, the single viral particles have to be assembled and copies of the genome enclosed. This process takes place in the cytoplasm with the help of the endoplasmic reticulum and the golgi apparatus. During this stage, the viral capability to inhibit autophagy processes is once again used to avoid elimination of viral particles.
By the natural presence flavonoids, including quercetin, Honey extract MAEE™ encourage the autophagy process enabling a cell to eliminate impurities or damage, contributing to the body's recovery and protection during viral infection.
Release of viral particles and transport to other tissues
The release of infectious viral particles into the extracellular space, enabling further infection of neighboring cells or transport through the bloodstream to other tissues.
The hidden dangers of chronic viral infections.
When the viral genetic information is integrated into a cell, this integration changes its normal sequence. It is well understood that a change on the DNA code, also called mutation, can have different consequences. If the sequence of a non-coding region is affected (a region that will not be translated into a protein), the effects are limited. If, however, a coding region is affected the effects can be serious, especially when proteins or enzymes are involved that regulate the cell cycle and proliferation. Viruses that do integrate their genetic information into the host cell’s DNA (like HPV and herpes virus) prefer to do so in coding regions. A potential reason for this is that the viral genetic information thereby has better access to important promoter regions.
Promoter regions are those parts of the DNA that regulate the transcription of the following DNA sequence until a terminator region is reached. Due to this preference of viruses to infiltrate coding regions of the DNA, the risk of the mutation of important cell cycle functions is increased.
With re-occurring outbreaks and new infection of cells, the risk increases that one of these mutation will lead to a cell with uncontrolled cell division, also called tumour or cancer. It is due to this risk that gynaecologists often recommend the removal of affected tissues of the cervix of woman showing HPV infection. Similarly, herpes infections can lead to cancers in the throat or other tissues with re-occurring outbreaks.